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Satchu's Rich Wrap-Up
Thursday 07th of June 2012

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Recipe for the Universe: Just Six Numbers, by Sir Martin Rees

Our whole Universe is governed by just six numbers, set at the time of
the Big Bang. Alter any one of them at your peril, for stars, planets
and humans would then not exist.

Mathematical laws underpin the fabric of our Universe – not just
atoms, but galaxies, stars and people. The properties of atoms – their
sizes and masses, how many different kinds there are, and the forces
linking them together – determine the chemistry of our everyday world.
The very existence of atoms depends on forces and particles deep
inside them. The objects that astronomers study – planets, stars and
galaxies – are controlled by the force of gravity. And everything
takes place in the arena of an expanding Universe, whose properties
were imprinted into it at the time of the initial Big Bang.

Science advances by discerning patterns and regularities in nature, so
that more and more phenomena can be subsumed into general categories
and laws. Theorists aim to encapsulate the essence of the physical
laws in a unified set of equations and a few numbers. There is still
some way to go, but progress is remarkable.

Six numbers

At the start of the twenty-first century, we have identified six
numbers that seem especially significant. Two of them relate to the
basic forces; two fix the size and overall 'texture' of our Universe
and determine whether it will continue for ever; and two more fix the
properties of space itself:


The cosmic number omega measures the amount of material in our
Universe – galaxies, diffuse gas, and 'dark matter'. Omega tells us
the relative importance of gravity and expansion energy in the
Universe. A universe within which omega was too high would have
collapsed long ago; had omega been too low, no galaxies would have
formed. The inflationary theory of the Big Bang says omega should be
one; astronomers have yet to measure its exact value.

These six numbers constitute a 'recipe' for a universe. Moreover, the
outcome is sensitive to their values: if any one of them were to be
'untuned', there would be no stars and no life. Is this tuning just a
brute fact, a coincidence? Or is it the providence of a benign
Creator? I take the view that it is neither. An infinity of other
universes may well exist where the numbers are different. Most would
be stillborn or sterile. We could only have emerged (and therefore we
naturally now find ourselves) in a universe with the 'right'
combination. This realisation offers a radically new perspective on
our Universe, on our place in it, and on the nature of physical laws.

It is astonishing that an expanding universe, whose starting point is
so 'simple' that it can be specified by just a few numbers, can evolve
(if these numbers are suitable tuned) into our intricately structured

Perhaps there are some connections between these numbers. At the
moment, however, we cannot predict any one of them from the values of
the others. Nor do we know whether some 'theory of everything' will
eventually yield a formula that interrelates them, or that specifies
them uniquely. I have highlighted these six because each plays a
crucial and dis-tinctive role in our Universe, and together they
determine how the Universe evolves and what its internal
potentialities are; moreover, three of them (those that pertain to the
large-scale Universe) are only now being measured with any precision.

Why the Universe is so large

The tremendous timespans involved in biological evolution offer a new
perspective on the question 'why is our Universe so big?' The
emergence of human life here on Earth has taken 4.5 billion years.
Even before our Sun and its planets could form, earlier stars must
have transmuted pristine hydrogen into carbon, oxygen and the other
atoms of the periodic table. This has taken about ten billion years.
The size of the observable Universe is, roughly, the distance
travelled by light since the Big Bang, and so the present visible
Universe must be around ten billion light-years across.

The galaxy pair NGC 6872 and IC 4970 indicate the vastness of the
Universe. Light from the bright foreground star has taken a few
centuries to reach us; the light from the galaxies has been travelling
for 300 million years. The Universe must be this big – as measured by
the cosmic number N – to give intelligent life time to evolve. In
addition, the cosmic numbers omega and Q must have just the right
values for galaxies to form at all.

This is a startling conclusion. The very hugeness of our Universe,
which seems at first to signify how unimportant we are in the cosmic
scheme, is actually entailed by our existence! This is not to say that
there couldn't have been  a smaller universe, only that we could not
have existed in it. The expanse of cosmic space is not an extravagant
superiority; it's a consequence of the prolonged chain of events,
extending back before our Solar System formed, that preceded our
arrival on the scene.

This may seem a regression to an ancient 'anthropocentric' perspective
– something that was shattered by Copernicus's revelation that the
Earth moves around the Sun rather than vice versa. But we shouldn't
take Copernican modesty (some-times called the 'principle of
mediocrity') too far. Creatures like us require special conditions to
have evolved, so our perspective is bound to be in some sense
atypical. The vastness of our universe shouldn't surprise us, even
though we may still seek a deeper explanation for its distinctive

Cosmology comes of age

The physicist Max Born once claimed that theories are never abandoned
until their proponents are all dead – that science advances 'funeral
by funeral'. But that's too cynical. Several long running cosmological
debates have now been settled; some earlier issues are no longer
controversial. Many of us have often changed our minds – I certainly

Cosmological ideas are no longer any more fragile and evanescent than
our theories about the history of our own Earth. Geologists infer that
the continents are drifting over the globe, about as fast as your
fingernails grow, and that Europe and North America were joined
together 200 million years ago. We believe them, even though such vast
spans of time are hard to grasp. We also believe, at least in outline,
the story of how our biosphere evolved nand how we humans emerged.

Some key features of out cosmic environment are now underpinned by
equally firm data. The empirical support for a Big Bang ten to fifteen
billion years ago is as compelling
as the evidence that geologists offer on our Earth's history. This is
an astonishing turnaround: our ancestors could weave theories almost
unencumbered by facts, and until quite recently cosmology seemed
little more than speculative mathematics.

A few years ago, I already had 90% confidence that there was indeed a
Big Bang – that everything in our observable Universe started as a
compressed fireball, far hotter than the centre of the Sun. The case
now is far stronger: dramatic advances in observations and experiments
have brought the broad cosmic picture into sharp focus during the
1990s, and I would now raise my degree of certainty to 99%.

“The most incomprehensible thing about the Universe is that it is
comprehensible” is one of Albert Einstein's best-known aphorisms. It
expresses his amazement that the laws of physics, which our minds are
somehow attuned to understand, apply not just here on Earth but also
in the remotest galaxy. Newton taught us that the same force that
makes apples fall holds the Moon and planets in their courses. We now
know that this same force binds the galaxies, makes some stars
collapse into black holes, and may eventually cause the Andromeda
galaxy to collapse on top of us. Atoms in the most distant galaxies
are identical to those we can study in our laboratories. All parts of
the universe seem to be evolving in a similar way, as though they
shared a common origin. Without this uniformity, cosmology would have
got nowhere.

Recent advances bring into focus new mysteries about the origin of our
Universe, the laws governing it, and even its eventual fate. These
pertain to the first tiny fraction of a second after the Big Bang,
when conditions were so extreme that the relevant physics isn't
understood – where we wonder about the nature of time, the number of
dimensions, and the origin of matter. In this initial instant,
everything was squeezed to such immense densities that the problems of
the cosmos and the micro-world overlap.

Space can't be indefinitely divided. The details are still mysterious,
but most physicists suspect that there is some kind of granularity on
a scale of 10-33 centimetres. This is twenty powers of ten smaller
than an atomic nucleus: as big a decrease as the increase in scale
from an atomic nucleus to a major city. We then encounter a barrier:
even if there were still tinier structures, they would transcend our
concepts of space and time.

Other universes


Measuring the sixth number, lambda, was the biggest scientific news of
1998, though its precise value is still uncertain. An unsuspected new
force – a cosmic 'antigravity' – controls the expansion of our
Universe. Fortunately for us, lambda is very small. Otherwise its
effect would have stopped galaxies and stars from forming, and cosmic
evolution would have been stifled before it could even begin. What
about the largest scales? Are there domains whose light has not yet
had time to reach us in the ten billion years or so since the Big
Bang? We plainly have no direct evidence. However, there are no
theoretical bounds on the extent of our Universe (in space, and in
future time), and on what may come into view in the remote future –
indeed, it may stretch not just millions of times farther than our
currently observable domain, but millions of powers of ten further.

And even that isn't all. Our Universe, extending immensely far beyond
our present horizon, may itself be just one member of a possibly
infinite ensemble. This 'multiverse' concept, though speculative, is a
natural extension of current cosmological theories, which gain
credence because they account for things that we do observe. The
physical laws and geometry could be different in other universes.

What distinguishes our Universe from all those others may be just six numbers.


The cosmic number omega measures the amount of material in our
Universe – galaxies, diffuse gas, and 'dark matter'. Omega tells us
the relative importance of gravity and expansion energy in the
Universe. A universe within which omega was too high would have
collapsed long ago; had omega been too low, no galaxies would have
formed. The inflationary theory of the Big Bang says omega should be
one; astronomers have yet to measure its exact value.

EPSILON = 0.007

Another number, epsilon, defines how firmly atomic nuclei bind
together and how all the atoms on Earth were made. The value of
epsilon controls the power from the Sun and, more sensitively, how
stars transmute hydrogen into all the atoms of the periodic table.
Carbon and oxygen are common, and gold and uranium are rare, because
of what happens in the stars. If epsilon were 0.006 or 0.008, we could
not exist.

The Cosmic Number N

The galaxy pair NGC 6872 and IC 4970 indicate the vastness of the
Universe. Light from the bright foreground star has taken a few
centuries to reach us; the light from the galaxies has been travelling
for 300 million years. The Universe must be this big – as measured by
the cosmic number N – to give intelligent life time to evolve. In
addition, the cosmic numbers omega and Q must have just the right
values for galaxies to form at all.

D = 3

The first crucial number is the number of spatial dimensions: we live
in a three-dimensional Universe. Life couldn't exist if D were two or
four. Time is a fourth dimension, but distinctively different from the
others in that it has a built-in arrow: we 'move' only towards the


Measuring the sixth number, lambda, was the biggest scientific news of
1998, though its precise value is still uncertain. An unsuspected new
force – a cosmic 'antigravity' – controls the expansion of our
Universe. Fortunately for us, lambda is very small. Otherwise its
effect would have stopped galaxies and stars from forming, and cosmic
evolution would have been stifled before it could even begin.

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China and Russia flex muscle Asia Times
Law & Politics

Russian and Chinese viewpoint on the ongoing crisis in Syria:

    "On the Syrian issue, China and Russia have stayed in close
communication and coordination both in New York, Moscow and Beijing
... The position of both sides is clear to all - there should be an
immediate end to violence and the political dialogue process should be
launched as soon as possible".

Besides lauding Sino-Russian cooperation on the issue, Liu explicitly
made clear the two nations' consistent objection to the use of force
to resolve the Syrian issue: "China and Russia share the same position
on these points and both sides oppose external intervention into the
Syrian situation and oppose regime change by force." [1]

The gauntlet has been thrown down. China and Russia will not authorize
the use of force against the Syrian government in the United Nations
Security Council.

China's ambassador to the United Nations, Li Baodong, defined the
Chinese government's view towards the Syrian conflict on Monday,
saying, "We [do] not have intention to protect anybody against
anybody. ... What we really want to see is that the sovereignty of
that country can be safeguarded, and the destiny of that country can
be in the hands of the people in Syria." [4]

Li effectively summarized the geostrategic worldview and resulting
policies of Russia, China, and the SCO. The sovereignty of each
individual country is sacrosanct. It does not matter exactly who is
ruling a nation, so long as a government is not imposed from the


Who is triangulating whom?

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Facebook share Price Data Bloomberg
World Of Finance

26.8100 USD
52wk Range:     25.5200 - 45.0000
Market Cap (M USD)     63,768.71

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Currency Markets AT A Glance WSJ
World Currencies

Euro 1.2570
Dollar Index 82.24
Japan Yen 79.46
Swiss Franc 0.9556
Pound 1.5476
Aussie 0.9963
India Rupee 55.085
South Korea Won 1171.16
Brazil Real  2.0330
Egypt Pound 6.0334
South Africa Rand 8.3078

Chairman Ben S. Bernanke today may signal more stimulus is needed to
spur a recovery in the world’s largest economy.

Fed Vice Chairman Janet Yellen said yesterday in Boston slowing job
growth and deteriorating financial-market conditions show the U.S.
economy “remains vulnerable to setbacks” and may warrant additional
monetary stimulus.

The yield on Spain’s 10-year bond fell 3 basis points to 6.28 percent
yesterday, compared with a euro-era record of 6.78 percent on Nov. 17.
The spread with the same German maturities was at 4.95 percentage
points, compared with a record 5.48 percentage points on June 1.


The Dollar is no longer a No Brainer.

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Euro versus The Dollar 1 Month Chart 1.25676 Last
World Currencies

A Sharp Short Covering Rally from levels just below 1.23 a few days
ago, when Shorts got over extended.

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Dollar Index 1 Month Chart 82.258 Last -1.1% This Week
World Currencies

“The U.S. dollar is certainly susceptible to indications that the Fed
is looking at QE3, considering that long positions have been built up
to near-record levels,” Mike Jones, a Wellington-based currency
strategist at Bank of New Zealand Ltd, said referring to a third round
of debt purchases known as quantitative easing. “It’s the rhetoric
that really matters for markets.”


QE3 is a Racing Certainty and more of a Racing Certainty than Lester
Piggott ever was.

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Crude Oil 1 Year Chart INO 85.44 Last

Oil in New York, which fell 17 percent in May for the biggest monthly
drop in more than three years, may rebound if policy makers take steps
to contain the European debt crisis and counter weaker economic growth
in the U.S. and China, Goldman Sachs said in e-mailed report today.

ran, OPEC’s second-biggest crude producer, faces additional European
Union sanctions starting July 1 because of its nuclear program. The
embargo will remove about 1 million barrels of oil from the market,
the International Energy Agency estimates.

Iran will “never suspend” its enrichment of uranium and “will not
permit our national security to be jeopardized” by International
Atomic Energy Agency inspectors working for Western intelligence
agencies, Ali Asghar Soltanieh, the nation’s envoy to the IAEA, told
reporters in Vienna yesterday.

Soltanieh contradicted IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano’s May 22
announcement that a decision had been made to allow inspectors
increased access to nuclear sites. The Persian Gulf nation’s nuclear
negotiator Saeed Jalili only pledged his “determination” to reach an
accord, Soltanieh said.

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"Sleeping Muse" (c. 1920s) by Constantin Brancusi via Bloomberg

The artist's small, vintage gelatin silver print transforms his marble
sculpture, "Sleeping Muse," into a crystal ball.

In one view of the studio, two works become mother and child. In
another, a photo of “Eve & Plato” (c. 1922), one sculpture looks like
an alien contemplating ancient ruins.

In the artist’s masterly photographs of his sculpted heads, “Sleeping
Muse” (c. 1920s) and “Prometheus” (c. 1926-27), Brancusi moves beyond
documentation or even meditation.

He peers into his own work as if into a crystal ball.

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As its President dines with the Queen, Sri Lanka's torture of its Tamils is revealed Independent
Law & Politics

Further evidence has emerged of the brutal treatment of Tamils by Sri
Lankan soldiers during the closing stages of the country's civil war.
Video footage obtained by The Independent shows soldiers gloating over
a pile of more than 100 Tamil corpses, including dozens of women who
have been deliberately stripped of their clothes to expose their
breasts and genitals.

The videos are part of a growing body of evidence which has emerged
over the past two years – much of which was recorded by Sri Lankan
soldiers – revealing how many Tamils were tortured, summarily executed
and often humiliated after their deaths for the entertainment of their

The latest footage – which was smuggled out of Sri Lanka by a man who
used to work at an internet café frequented by soldiers, and passed to
The Independent – emerged as thousands of angry Tamil demonstrators
massed outside the Commonwealth’s headquarters in London yesterday in
protest at a lunch hosted by the Queen, which was attended by Sri
Lanka’s controversial President, Mahinda Rajapaksa.


The Evidence is in fact compelling.

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Sri Lanka Colombo Stock Exchange All Share Index Bloomberg -21.501% 2012
Emerging Markets


This Index rallied 256.34% 9th June 2009 [closed at 2192] through 14th
Feb 2011 when it closed at 7811.82 an All Time Closing High.

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US offers millions in bounty for Somali Islamists AP

WASHINGTON -- The Obama administration will offer up to $33 million in
rewards for information about top members of an Islamist extremist
group in Somalia linked to al-Qaida, U.S. officials said Wednesday.

The rewards for seven leaders of the al-Shabab militia movement will
be announced Thursday by the State Department, the officials said,
speaking on condition of anonymity ahead of the announcement.

The bounties will be administered by the department's Rewards for
Justice program. It will be first time the program has offered rewards
for members of al-Shabab, which is accused of terrorist attacks in
Somalia, Uganda and Kenya.

The program will offer up to $7 million for al-Shabab's founder, Ahmed
Abdi aw-Mohamed; up to $5 million each for his associates, Ibrahim
Haji Jama, Fuad Mohamed Khalaf, Bashir Mohamed Mahamoud and Mukhtar
Robow; and up to $3 million for Zakariya Ismail Ahmed Hersi and
Abdullahi Yare, according to the officials.


I said this in my Interview with Beatrice Marshall CCTV

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CCTV Talk Africa Africa's Natural Capital Interview with Beatrice Marshall

That One Side has weaponised its Intervention with which it can tilt
the Pitch at will and for now I see it as a Winning Hand in what is
increasingly becoming a very valuable Pitch indeed.

The Indian Ocean Energy Prize on the Eastern SeaBoard of Africa a Photo Journey

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Felipe Fernández-Armesto

is the Fellow who opened My Eyes to looking at the Topography from the
View of the Ocean.

Felipe Fernández-Armesto Civilizations

The preeminence of China and the centrality of the Indian Ocean are
among the book’s larger themes. Fernandez-Armesto pays tribute to the
extraordinary energy and adaptability of Chinese culture (and of the
rice and millet on which it is based). About its influence, he notes
that “until the last three hundred years, most of the inventions and
technical advances which made a real difference to people’s lives came
from China.” And three hundred years, as readers of this book will
hardly need to be reminded, is not a very long time.

As a student of colonialism, Fernandez-Armesto naturally emphasizes
ocean voyaging. We learn how seafarers divide up bodies of water – not
in relation to the land masses that border them but by wind and
current, about which we get much information. In particular, we learn
the all-important distinction between monsoon winds and trade winds,
which accounts for the rate and timing of Arab and European expansion
and of the spread of Islam and Christianity. This is why, until the
16th century, the Atlantic and Pacific, with their unmapped winds and
complex currents, “were obstacles to communication, keeping peoples
apart, whereas the Indian Ocean was already a centuries-old system of
highways, linking most of the cultures which lined its shores.”

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Horn of Africa region has Huge Potential 19th March 2012 The Star

I started my introduction with Vinod Khosla’s quote:

‘’The future is not seen in the rear view mirror.’’

The World is now flat as a pancake and there will surely come a day
when the Horn of Africa becomes a hot investment destination.

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Shell moves to help enable exploration off Zanzibar Reuters
Minerals, Oil & Energy

STONE TOWN, Zanzibar (Reuters) - Royal Dutch Shell is stepping up
efforts to help clear the way to explore for oil and gas in east
Africa after a decade-long delay due to a standoff between Zanzibar
and Tanzania on the sharing of potential revenue, company officials

The dispute between semi-autonomous Zanzibar and its mainland rulers
has prevented Shell from starting work on four blocks off Zanzibar's
coast or selling interests in its exploration rights in the region,
which has become a hot spot for oil and gas exploration after new

Shell said it could not discuss details of its negotiations with the
governments but was hopeful of a resolution.

The oil major will be able to move forward when a production-sharing
agreement it started negotiations on in 2003 is finalised.

"We have recently been engaging with both the Tanzanian and Zanzibar
governments with a view to achieving this, which would allow
exploration activities to begin," a spokesman for Shell who declined
to be named, said in an email to Reuters.

"We understand the complex issues involved, and we are playing a
constructive and full part in seeking to resolve them as soon as

Zanzibar has said since Shell won rights to the blocks in 2002 that
the revenue from any discovery should be for its sole benefit.

State-owned Tanzania Petroleum Development Corp (TPDC) fears that
making a politically unpopular decision could stoke separatist
sentiments in Zanzibar.

Government officials in Tanzania and Zanzibar said meetings to discuss
the standoff have all but ceased, while an escalation of tensions as
separatist Islamist groups clashed with police on May 27 has worsened
the impasse.

"There have been a number of meetings, and a committee has been set
(to resolve the issue). But they are not meeting anymore ... all have
grown tired," said Elias Kilembe, a senior geologist with the TPDC
told Reuters in Dar es Salaam.

But Mohamed Mohamed, director of Zanzibar's department of minerals and
energy, told Reuters that he was still hopeful of a quick resolution
to the dispute.

"I'm optimistic this will work out soon."

Shell appears keen to establish a foothold in the region, escalating a
bidding war this month for independent explorer Cove Energy, which has
a minor stake in several gas blocks offshore Tanzania and Mozambique.

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Conclusions MAPUTO BOOM TIME The Star

Greetings from the Serena Polana, Maputo. I can confirm that Maputo is
the Land of wonderful and flavoursome Tiger Prawns. The Architecture
is also deliciously retro. By the Way, the Polana was built in 1922
and The Flavour is fabulously Riviera and very swanky. Its less than 4
Hours by Plane from Nairobi and surely set to be the most of In Things
and Places to visit.

Of course, Mozambique has popped big onto the Global Radar because of
simply Bucketloads of Gas that have been discovered offshore and in
the deep Sea. I have said before, that I believe the Eastern Seaboard
of Africa is clearly the Last Great Energy Prize in the c21st and I
believe this Lake of Hydrocarbons stretches from Mozambique up through
Tanzania, Kenya and Somalia. We remain in the Early Stage of this
Discovery Process but Mozambique is further along the Curve. Some
Estimate that Mozambique has Gas which is equivalent to 2m Barrels of
Crude Oil per Day for 50 Years. 2m Barrels of Crude Oil is worth $166m
[per day].

This Excitement around Gas in Mozambique has found expression in a
Bidding War for Cove Energy. Cove Energy has an 8.5% stake in
Mozambique’s Rovuma offshore gas basin.

John Craven Cove CEO, said: ” The project is well under way to
becoming the second largest LNG project in the world.”

Now it is always part of the Job Description for a CEO of a Wildcatter
like Cove or Tullow Oil to be bullish but This Time around, I urge You
to listen. By the Way, Tullow Oil's Mr Heavey said last week that
Kenya had the potential to dwarf its lucrative Lake Albert play in
neighbouring Uganda.

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Mubarak was given artificial respiration five times in recent hours Reuters
Law & Politics

The deposed leader was suffering from nervous shock and an increase in
his blood pressure, reported MENA, summarising the findings of a
medical team which examined him.

Must be Trauma and a State of Disbelief.

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Militias attacking Ivory Coast from Liberia: HRW Reuters
Law & Politics

ABIDJAN (Reuters) - Liberia's government has failed to stop
mercenaries and militias based on its soil from recruiting child
soldiers and launching a series of deadly raids on villages across the
border in Ivory Coast, Human Rights Watch said on Wednesday.

Thousands of Liberian gunmen fought alongside Ivorian fighters in a
four-month post-election conflict in Ivory Coast last year, most on
behalf of former President Laurent Gbagbo, and withdrew back to
Liberia following Gbagbo's capture in April 2011.Those combatants,
accused of massacring civilians during the war, have conducted four
cross-border attacks on villages in western Ivory Coast since July
that killed 40 people, a report published by the New York-based rights
campaigner said.

Fighters were quoted as saying they were receiving funding from Ghana
and from mining operations in Liberia to mount future attacks. And
while Liberia had made dozens of arrests of suspected mercenaries
since the end of the Ivory Coast war, nearly all had since been
released, the report said.

"For well over a year, the Liberian government has had its head in the
sand," said Matt Wells, West Africa researcher at Human Rights Watch

"Rather than uphold its responsibility to prosecute or extradite those
involved in international crimes, Liberian authorities have stood by
as many of these same people recruit child soldiers and carry out
deadly cross-border attacks."

A Liberian government spokesman said he could not immediately comment
because he had not yet seen the report.

Investigations by the United Nations and rights groups have implicated
Liberian mercenaries and pro-Gbagbo militias in civilian massacres in
the commercial capital Abidjan and in the country's volatile west.

Gbagbo was charged with criminal responsibility for war crimes and
crimes against humanity for his role in the violence. He is awaiting
trial at the International Criminal Court in The Hague.

U.N. officials and diplomats do not believe the fighters have the
capacity to destabilise the government of new President Alassane
Ouattara. However some fear they could inflame long-running land
disputes in Ivory Coast's cocoa-producing west.

Several fighters quoted in the HRW report said the group had received
regular financing from abroad, including from Ghana and from gold
mining in eastern Liberia.

A number of high-ranking military and political figures close to
Gbagbo are living in exile in Ghana. Ivory Coast has issued
international arrest warrants for several individuals, but Accra has
yet to act them.

A Ghana official declined to comment.

"We have guns ... and other support that will help facilitate this
process - businesses are established and the supply line is stronger
than ever before," said one interviewed fighter, who said his unit was
preparing new, larger attacks.

"Let no one fool you that the war is over in Ivory Coast."

Among those released were Isaac "Bob Marley" Chegbo, who commanded a
unit accused by U.N. investigators of massacring more than 100 people
in Ivory Coast, and Augustine "Bush Dog" Vleyee, believed to be
recruiting child soldiers for raids.

"There are some guys in our community who have started recruiting
small boys," said one resident in eastern Liberia, quoted in the HRW
report. "We have been complaining to the security , but they are
always saying they don't have evidence to prove it."


HRW has been throwing some Punches this week.

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Dollar versus Rand 5 Day Chart INO 8.3028 Last
World Currencies

It had gotten stretched and overextended to the Downside.

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Malawi, IMF agree 3-yr, $157 mln support package Reuters

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Malawi said on Wednesday
they had agreed to a 3-year, $157 million package to support the
southern African country's troubled economy.

"We hope that this will encourage Malawi's donors, who have already
pledged that they will support the 2012/13 budget, to quickly release
their funds and make the country's international reserves
sustainable," IMF mission chief Tsidi Tsikata told a news conference.


Quid pro Quos all over the Place.

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Banda drops Malawi's bling image
Law & Politics

(11-million-euro) presidential jet controversially bought by her
predecessor three years ago as well as 60 limousines ferrying cabinet
ministers and top government officials.

These steps are meant to heal breaches with international donors who
pulled the plug on vital aid to the southern African nation, citing
poor economic policies and governance under late president Bingu wa

"There is urgent need in our country to change the way we do things,"
the 62-year-old Banda - who was vice president from 2009 until she
became president on April 7 - told parliament.


Joyce Banda has done good and quickly.

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“We are not buying more shares,” said the investment secretary, Esther Koimett Re Kenya Airways Business Daily
N.S.E Equities - Commercial & Services

Delay in announcing outcome of the airline’s (KQ) share sale has
fuelled speculation that the offer has been under-subscribed, with a
source within the transaction advisory team revealing to the Business
Daily that the offer achieved a 77 per cent uptake.

The Kenya Airways communications manager, Chris Karanja, said the
airline would not comment on the rights issue until Friday’s
announcement of subscription results.

The Capital Markets Authority also declined to comment on the matter.

The Treasury owns 23 per cent of KQ shares, while Dutch airline, KLM,
holds 26 per cent stock of the carrier.

The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is expected to hold at
least 7.4 per cent of the airline at the conclusion of the share sale.

read more

Kenya Airways share price data here and All Relevant Communications
N.S.E Equities - Commercial & Services

Par Value:                  5/-
Closing Price:           14.95
Total Shares Issued:          461620000.00
Market Capitalization:        6,901,219,000
EPS:             7.65
PE:                 1.954

Swot Analysis H1 2011 to Sep 2011 versus H1 2010 to Sep 2010
Revenue 48.597b versus 36.739b
Total Revenue 54.932b versus 41.214b +33.3%
Total Expenses 53.913b versus 38.834b
Operating Margin 1.9% versus 5.8%
Realised Gain on Fuel Derivatives 1.454b
PAT 2.034b versus 1.436b +41.643%
EPS 4.40 versus 3.11 +41.47%

read more

by Aly Khan Satchu (www.rich.co.ke)
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June 2012

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