Key findings of the 2016 IIAG include:
• Over the past decade, the continental average score in Overall
Governance has improved by one point.
• Since 2006, 37 countries, hosting 70% of African citizens, have
improved in Overall Governance.
• The greatest improver at the Overall Governance level over the
decade is Côte d’Ivoire (+13.1), followed by Togo (+9.7), Zimbabwe
(+9.7), Liberia (+8.7) and Rwanda (+8.4).
• Even if Ghana and South Africa feature in the top ten performing
countries in Overall Governance in 2015, they are also the eighth and
tenth most deteriorated over the decade.
• At the Overall Governance level, the three highest scoring countries
in 2015 are Mauritius, Botswana and Cabo Verde, and the three most
improved over the decade are Côte d’Ivoire, Togo and Zimbabwe.
• Safety & Rule of Law is the only category of the Index to register a
negative trend over the decade, falling by -2.8 score points in the
past ten years.
• In 2015 almost two-thirds of African citizens live in a country
where Safety & Rule of Law has deteriorated over the last ten years.
• Accountability is the lowest scoring (35.1) of the 14 sub-categories in 2015.
• The continental average score for the Corruption & Bureaucracy
indicator has declined by -8.7 points over the last decade, with 33
countries registering deterioration, 24 of them falling to their worst
ever score in 2015.
• A large majority (78%) of African citizens live in a country that
has improved in Participation & Human Rights over the past decade.
• Progress over the decade in Participation & Human Rights (+2.4
points) has been driven by Gender
(+4.3) and Participation (+3.0), while Rights (-0.2) registered a
• Six of the ten highest scoring countries in Rights have registered
deterioration in the past ten years.
• Two-thirds of the countries on the continent, representing 67% of
the African population, have shown
deterioration in Freedom of Expression over the past ten years. Eleven
countries, covering over a quarter (27%) of the continent’s
population, have declined across all three civil society measures –
Civil Society Participation, Freedom of Expression and Freedom of
Association & Assembly – over the decade.
• In 2015 more than two-thirds of African citizens (70%) live in
countries where Sustainable Economic Opportunity has improved in the
last ten years.
• Digital & IT Infrastructure is the most improved indicator (out of
95) of the IIAG over the decade.
• Diversification is the lowest scoring indicator in the IIAG, and
shows deterioration over the past ten years.
• 40% of Africans live in a country which has registered deterioration
in Electricity Infrastructure over the decade, with over half of
Africa’s economy affected by this issue.
• The marginal deterioration of -0.8 points over the decade registered
in Business Environment masks considerably diverging trends, with 24
countries declining, five by more than -10.0 points, and 28 countries
progressing, five by more than +10.0 points.
• Niger, Rwanda, Côte d’Ivoire, Togo and Kenya have progressed by more
than +10.0 points in Business Environment over the decade.
• 43 countries, hosting more than four-fifths (87%) of the African
population, have registered improvement in Human Development over the
decade. Rwanda, Ethiopia, Angola, and Togo have
increased by more than +10.0 points in Human Development over the decade.
• All 54 countries have registered progress in Child Mortality over the decade.
• Over the last ten years, the Poverty indicator has registered
improvement (+7.2 points), with 29 countries, accounting for 67% of
Africa’s population and 76% of Africa’s GDP, improving.
• However, the Poverty Reduction Priorities indicator has registered
an average decline of -1.3 points, with 23 countries, hosting 45% of
Africa’s population, declining.