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Satchu's Rich Wrap-Up
 
 
Wednesday 09th of December 2020
 


I'm a deep thinker and typically have multiple conversations and computations raging inside my head constantly. And I don't play it safe. I swing for the fences...but I'm not your nanny or your teacher. @hendry_hugh
Misc.

I'm a deep thinker and typically have multiple conversations and computations raging inside my head constantly. My delivery tends to be somewhat chaotic as a result. Fools underestimate me. And I don't play it safe. I swing for the fences...but I'm not your nanny or your teacher.

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The whole business of guessing the future should not come cloaked in respectability. The pitch book, the charts, the data...the pretence of certainty...they guarantee nothing except mediocrity in this game. Be kooky not safe, reject conventional. @hendry
Misc.



The whole business of guessing the future should not come cloaked in respectability. The pitch book, the charts, the data...the pretence of certainty...they guarantee nothing except mediocrity in this game. There's a method to my madness. Be kooky not safe, reject conventional.

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Antoine d'Agata's use of thermal imaging technology allows him to visualise the 'essence of humanity' in his documentation of France's streets and hospitals at the peak of COVID-19's ravages @MagnumPhotos
Misc.



“I’m never just working – I’m always in an existential crisis, trying to generate an autonomous and pertinent position.”

"[The thermal imaging camera is a tool d'Agata] first used to document the rituals of religious communities in Paris, for a Magnum Live Lab commission, on the three year anniversary of the Bataclan attacks in November 2018. He is drawn to how this camera reduces the human subjects in his images to a heat source, an essence of humanity, stripped of cultural specificity"

On the first day of lockdown he took this camera and went out into the city: “The first few days I was fascinated by the emptiness and then I went closer – to the homeless, to people looking for food, to the police – and became more interested in the movements of bodies in space – [in their] isolation.” 

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09-NOV-2020 :: “You can't eat the orange and throw the peel away - a man is not a piece of fruit.”
Law & Politics



The demise of the Reality TV Star turned seriously vaudeville with Mr. Giulani mounting the last stand from the Four Seasons Total Landscaping next to Fantasy Island Adult Books across the street from the Delaware Valley Cremation Center.

Some Folks seem convinced that the Prophet of Populism Donald J. Trump is going to lead his 70m Disciples into some major 5th generational chess moves but surely just as likely is an Unfolding psychological breakdown played out in front of our eyes on TV like Willy Loman in Arthur Miller's Death of Salesman

“You can't eat the orange and throw the peel away - a man is not a piece of fruit.”


“If personal meaning, in this cheer leader society, lies in success, then failure must threaten identity itself.”

I’m tired to the death. The flute has faded away. He sits on the bed beside her, a little numb. I couldn’t make it. I just couldn’t make it, Linda.

Counterintuitively, The Trump Vladislav Surkov Talking Points which of course always feature George Soros are strangely ineffective and a little like a receding tide.

“My take on Trump is that he is an inevitable creation of this unreal normal world,” Adam Curtis says. 

“Politics has become a pantomime or vaudeville in that it creates waves of anger rather than argument. Maybe people like Trump are successful simply because they fuel that anger, in the echo chambers of the internet.”


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Belt and Road Initiative China curtails overseas lending in face of geopolitical backlash @FinancialTimes
Law & Politics



China has drastically curtailed the overseas lending programme of its two largest policy banks, after nearly a decade of ambitious growth which at its peak rivalled that of the World Bank, new research indicates.

Lending by the China Development Bank and the Export-Import Bank of China collapsed from a peak of $75bn in 2016 to just $4bn last year, according to data compiled by researchers at Boston University and seen by the Financial Times.

The sharp retrenchment comes as Beijing rethinks its Belt and Road Initiative, the signature scheme of China’s leader Xi Jinping that finances and builds roads, railways, ports and other infrastructure in mostly developing countries.

The BRI has attracted growing criticism around the world for weaknesses including lending to low-income countries with shaky finances and a lack of transparency or social and environmental impact studies on the projects financed.

Kevin Gallagher, director of the Boston University Global Development Policy Center, which compiled the data, said Beijing’s trade war with the US was also a factor in the dramatic shift.

“In 2018 and [20]19 there was so much uncertainty because of the trade war with the US, they may have wanted to keep dollar assets at home,” he said.

According to a recent report by the Overseas Development Institute, a think-tank, Beijing is now realising that its approach to lending is unsustainable.


“The old . . . model, whereby the interests of Chinese companies and local elites take precedence over the good of the borrowing country, which bears a disproportionate amount of the project failure risk, will become even more unsustainable amid countries’ reduced capacity to take on debt and risk,” the ODI report said. 

China has three policy banks that drive infrastructure investment at home and overseas: the two banks covered by the Boston University survey and the Agricultural Development Bank. 

They can lend overseas on concessionary terms but more often lend at close to commercial rates of interest. 

Lending by the CDB and EIBC totalled $462bn between 2008 and 2019 according to the data, which will be published on Tuesday — just short of the $467bn lent by the World Bank to low- and middle-income countries during the period.

But the poor governance standards often associated with Chinese lending to BRI projects have contributed to a series of scandals and complaints by debtor countries.

In one recent example, Pakistan — one of the biggest recipients of BRI lending — alleged that Chinese companies inflated power project costs by billions of dollars; it is seeking to renegotiate repayment terms. 

Islamabad accused Chinese and local power companies of “malpractices” and exaggerating costs. Several big-ticket projects in Malaysia have also become mired in controversy.

Yu Jie, senior research fellow on China at Chatham House, the UK think-tank, said that state-owned enterprises and state-owned banks were shifting their resources to domestic rather than overseas projects. 

Beijing’s economic policies have changed in recent years from an emphasis on export-led growth to domestic investment and consumption.

“There will be far more stringent criteria on the commercial viability of projects,” Ms Yu said. 

“In the past it was more about using financial resources to extend China’s political influence. Now it will be more about commercial gains.”

She added that China faced “enormous . . . reputational damage” from the BRI: “Its expansive nature has alarmed the rest of the world and the government has been unable to come up with a transparent plan and explain its debt diplomacy.”

Public opinion in China is also a headwind to overseas lending, she said, as policymakers and the public have realised China needs to invest more in its health services, which had been tested by the coronavirus pandemic.

China’s lending has been concentrated in a relatively small number of countries, with 10 recipients making up 60 per cent of the total, according to the Boston University research. 

Loans to Venezuela, the largest recipient, took up more than 12.5 per cent, followed by Pakistan, Russia and Angola.

Projects financed were predominantly in transport and other infrastructure, mining and oil extraction, including pipelines, and power generation and transmission. 

Of 858 loans identified by the Boston researchers, 124 were for projects in nationally protected areas, 261 were within critical habitats and 133 were within indigenous peoples’ lands.


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19-APR-2020 :: The End of Vanity China Africa Win Win
Law & Politics




Interestingly, At that 2018 FOCAC Meeting Xi Jinping also delivered a thinly veiled warning

China's Xi says funds for Africa not for 'vanity projects' Reuters #FOCAC2018


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Ibn Khaldun sought to explain the intrinsic relationship between political leadership and the management of pandemics in the pre-colonial period in his book Muqaddimah
Law & Politics




Historically, such pandemics had the capacity to overtake “the dynasties at the time of their senility, when they had reached the limit of their duration” and, in the process, challenged their “power and curtailed their [rulers’] influence...”

Rulers who are only concerned with the well-being of their “inner circle and their parties” are an incurable “disease”.

States with such rulers can get “seized by senility and the chronic disease from which [they] can hardly ever rid [themselves], for which [they] can find no cure”


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I do not think people fully comprehend yet what exponential growth entails. @Marco_Piani
World Of Finance



This is the same exponential function, from 0 to 5, starting at a min of 1 & reaching a max of ~150, and from 0 to 10 (just double the range), reaching ~22,000.

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Currency Markets at a Glance WSJ
World Currencies



Euro 1.2133

Dollar Index 90.804

Japan Yen 104.20

Swiss Franc 0.8881

Pound 1.3382

Aussie 0.7445

India Rupee 73.576

South Korea Won 1085.03

Brazil Real 5.1209

Egypt Pound 15.6776

South Africa Rand 14.9665

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27-JAN-2020 :: “But it is a curve each of them feels, unmistakably. It is the parabola.''
World Of Finance


 “But it is a curve each of them feels, unmistakably. It is the parabola. They must have guessed, once or twice -guessed and refused to believe -that everything, always, collectively, had been moving toward that purified shape latent in the sky, that shape of no surprise, no second chance, no return.’’

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Sovereign defaults are so rare. Five this year and that's a record for this century, according to Goldman (Lebanon, Ecuador, Suriname, Belize, Zambia). @PaulWallace123
Emerging Markets

The bank flags #Iraq, Sri Lanka, #Gabon & #Angola as the most vulnerable bond issuers heading into 2021. Three #OPEC members.

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CoViD19-ΛFЯICΛ: Confirmed: 2 273 719 (+ 10516) Actives: 277 879 (-838) @NCoVAfrica
Africa



Confirmed: 2 273 719 (+ 10516)

Actives: 277 879 (-838)

Deaths: 54 120 (+ 243)

Recoveries: 1 940 128 (+ 11111)

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Latest positive rates in Africa: @redouad
Africa



Congo - Kinshasa Dem. Rep. of Congo 26.9%

Morocco 19.5%

South Africa 16.9%

Uganda 14.8%

Ethiopia 9.9%

Kenya 9.6%

Mozambique Mozambique 6.9%

Nigeria 6.3%

Ghana 4.3%

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Turning to Africa The Spinning Top
Africa


So far Africa has dodged the Virus from a medical perspective though it remains in my view a slow burning Fuse and we all know by now ''viruses exhibit non-linear and exponential characteristics'

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Abiy’s efforts to unify Ethiopia could lead to its disintegration @AJENews @QulshTM
Africa

Today, Ethiopia is once again in crisis. 

Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed’s efforts to re-centralise all state powers in Addis Ababa and dismantle the multi-ethnic federation established in the 1995 constitution in the name of “national unity”, led to an armed conflict between the federal military and a regional government, ruined thousands of lives and livelihoods, and once again made Ethiopia a centre of instability and conflict in the Horn of Africa.

It now seems Abiy’s push for “unity” could achieve the exact opposite – disintegration.

In 2018, Abiy ascended to power on a promise to bring unity, prosperity and peace to a polarised country engulfed in violent and seemingly endless unrest and chronic economic hardship. 

And as soon as he took office, with the support of an overwhelming majority of Ethiopians and the international community behind him, he embarked on an ambitious reform programme at breakneck speed.

Domestically, he oversaw the release of thousands of political prisoners, appointed Ethiopia’s first female president, filled half of his cabinet with women and nominated a once-jailed opposition leader as the new chairwoman of the electoral authority. 

In the international arena, he clinched a long-awaited peace deal with Eritrea, ending a bloody protracted war. 

He also mediated between Eritrea and Djibouti, Eritrea and Somalia, Somalia and Kenya, and pushed the various factions in South Sudan to give peace a chance.

In 2019, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize “for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea.”

Last month, however, he embarked on a military offensive against the Tigray Peoples Liberation Front (TPLF), the regional government of the northern Tigray region, risking to start a civil war in his country and destabilise the Horn of Africa.

According to Abiy, an alleged attack by forces loyal to the TPLF on the federal army base in Tigray on November 4 was the reason behind the military confrontation. 

However, that attack was not the cause but a symptom of growing unrest in Tigray and across the country.

Since Abiy took office, tensions have been simmering between his government and the TPLF due to their differing views about the way state power in Ethiopia should be structured. 

While Abiy openly campaigns for increased centralisation, not only the TPLF but also nine out of the 10 regional states in the country as well as most of the population want to preserve Ethiopia’s multi-ethnic federal arrangement.

The TPLF is not the only regional power in Ethiopia that faced attacks by federal security forces for resisting Abiy’s centralisation efforts. 

The prime minister had already deployed federal troops to the Oromia and Sidama regions to silence local activists and politicians who voiced their opposition to his plans for “uniting” the nation long before the start of the military operation in Tigray.

Throughout its long history, Ethiopia has been ruled by countless emperors and dictators who refused to acknowledge the distinct ethnic and cultural identities of the country’s diverse peoples. 

Most recently, between 1974 and 1991, the people of Ethiopia have been at the mercy of a dictatorship who viewed them as a monolithic bloc, ignored the needs and desires of local communities, and centralised all state powers in Addis Ababa.

The formation and rise to power of the Ethiopia People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) – a four-part ethnic coalition structure made up of the TPLF, the Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM, later Amhara Democratic Party), the Oromo Peoples’ Democratic Organization (OPDO, later Oromo Democratic Party), and the Southern Ethiopian Peoples’ Democratic Movement (SEPDM) – changed that.

The EPRDF toppled the dictatorship in 1991, introduced ethnic federalism to the country, and gave all nations, nationalities and peoples that are part of the newly found Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia autonomy and the right to secede from the federation when they see fit.

While the EPRDF’s ethnic federation has undoubtedly been imperfect, largely due to the TPLF’s domination of the federal government and tendency to ignore the rights of less powerful ethnic groups, it still acted as a safety valve against ethnic tensions and managed to keep the more than 80 ethnic groups living in the country somewhat united for decades.

But after the tensions stemming from the TPLF’s abuse of power and oppression of dissenting voices came to a boil in the last few years, and led to Abiy’s election by Parliament, the new prime minister embarked on a mission to transform Ethiopia into a centralised, unitary state.

To achieve this goal, in December 2019, Abiy dissolved the EPDRF and launched the Prosperity Party (PP) in its place. 

The OPDO, ANDM, and SEPDM voted overwhelmingly to join the new national party, while the TPLF, which created these parties and the EPRDF coalition, rejected the idea as “illegal and reactionary”.

Abiy’s political slogan is “medemer” – or “coming together” – and the prime minister’s vision for a united Ethiopia is inspired by the country’s “glorious past”

In his Nobel acceptance speech, he mentioned “Medemer” 14 times and defined it as: “Using the best of our past to build a new society and a new civic culture that thrives on tolerance, understanding, and civility.”

This vision, however, has two fatal flaws.

One, Ethiopia’s past was not glorious for everyone. Some people and communities have not been allowed to take part in Ethiopia’s state structures for centuries due to powerful minorities ruling the country perceiving them and their cultures as inferior. 

They have been forced to accept a “national culture” that is alien to them and have been violently repressed any time they tried to voice their dissent. 

These communities suffered intergenerational trauma due to the ruling elites’ efforts to create a uniform nation, and understandably do not want a return to this violent and unjust past.

Two, the past Abiy is nostalgic for was not defined by “unity” as he claims, but “control”. 

In no point in history, were the peoples of Ethiopia fully and willingly united – they were just controlled by authorities that ignored their differences.

 So Abiy is not working to return his country to a “glorious past” where all its peoples were living in harmony. 

Instead, he is trying to make himself the new “emperor” of Ethiopia and once again wage a war against diversity, democracy and freedom under the name of national unity.

Today, Amharas are the most vocal supporters of Abiy’s vision for a united Ethiopia, while Tigrayans and Oromos stand in its way. 

The current stances of these ethnic groups have their roots in Ethiopia’s history. 

Throughout Ethiopia’s imperial history – or the so-called “glorious past” – the Amhara culture was accepted as “the national culture” at the expense of the cultures and traditions of other ethnic groups. 

They held all the levers of power in their hands. Today, Amharas seem to believe if Abiy is allowed to “unify Ethiopia” they can return to the privileged position they enjoyed during the imperial era. 

Tigrayans and Oromos, meanwhile, only have memories of oppression and cultural erasure from the imperial era and this is why they are resisting Abiy’s centralisation efforts.

During its three-decade rule, the TPLF committed numerous egregious human rights violations for which their leaders should be held accountable. 

But a military operation against the Tigray region is undoubtedly not the way to bring them to account.

So far, despite Abiy’s recent declaration of victory, the peaceful resolution of the conflict between the federal government and the TPLF does not appear to be on the horizon

While the TPLF declared its intention to continue fighting until it secures the region’s right to self-determination, 

Abiy refused an offer by the African Union to mediate negotiations between the two warring sides. 

But whichever way this conflict ends, it is going to define Abiy’s premiership and determine the fate of Ethiopia’s multi-ethnic federalism. 

If Abiy insists on refusing to listen to those who view the federal system as a guarantee against the oppression of marginalised communities and continues to push for increased centralisation, Tigray may opt for the nuclear option and attempt to secede. 

This could not only lead to Ethiopia’s disintegration but also trigger yet another protracted conflict in the region, causing misery for millions of people in Ethiopia and beyond.

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@PMEthiopia has launched an unwinnable War on Tigray Province.
Africa





Ethiopia which was once the Poster child of the African Renaissance now has a Nobel Prize Winner whom I am reliably informed

PM Abiy His inner war cabinet includes Evangelicals who are counseling him he is "doing Christ's work"; that his faith is being "tested". @RAbdiAnalyst

@PMEthiopia has launched an unwinnable War on Tigray Province.



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I wrote this in 2 JUL 18 :: :Ethiopia Rising
Africa



I recalled watching the Whirling Dervishes of the Mevlevi order on a night of a full moon in Konya, Turkey. 

It’s all about speed and velocity. Paul Virilio terms it ‘dromology’, which he defined as the “science (or logic) of speed“. 

He notes that the speed at which something happens may change its essential nature, and that which moves with speed quickly comes to dominate that which is slower.

“Whoever controls the territory possesses it. Possession of territory is not primarily about laws and contracts, but first and foremost a matter of movement and circulation.”

Virilio argues that the traditional feudal fortified city disappeared because of the increasing sophistication of weapons and possibilities for warfare. 

For Virilio, the concept of siege warfare became rather a war of movement.

Abiy Ahmed has moved at lightning speed, the old guard is like ‘’the traditional feudal fortified city’’.

Conclusions

However, It is Debretsion who has the 'dromology'' advantage and that is why 

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The fugitive leader of Ethiopia’s defiant Tigray region on Monday called on Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed to “stop the madness” and withdraw troops
Africa


The fight is about self-determination of the region of around 6 million people, the Tigray leader said, and it “will continue until the invaders are out.” 

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U.S. thinks Eritrea has joined Ethiopian war, diplomats say @Reuters
Africa






WASHINGTON/NAIROBI (Reuters) - The United States believes Eritrean soldiers have crossed into Ethiopia, despite denials from both nations, a U.S. government source and five regional diplomats said, as Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed’s government battles a rebellious northern force.

Abiy and Eritrea’s President Isaias Afwerki signed a peace pact ending two decades of hostilities in 2018 and now regard the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) as a mutual foe.

The U.S. assessment creates a potential policy predicament as Washington views Ethiopia as a major ally in the volatile Horn of Africa but accuses Eritrea of severe rights abuses.

Evidence of Eritrean involvement cited in the U.S. view of the month-long war includes satellite images, intercepted communications and anecdotal reports from Tigray region, five diplomats and a security source all briefed on the U.S. assessment told Reuters.

A U.S. government source confirmed Washington’s growing consensus, which has not previously been reported but matches accounts by some residents, refugees and TPLF leaders.

“There doesn’t appear to be a doubt anymore. It’s being discussed by U.S. officials on calls - that the Eritreans are in Tigray - but they aren’t saying it publicly,” the U.S. government source, who has been privy to the internal calls, told Reuters.

A senior diplomat from another country concurred, saying “thousands” of Eritrean soldiers were believed to be engaged.

The U.S. State Department did not confirm the U.S. conclusions, though a spokesman said it would view any proven Eritrean involvement with great concern and that its embassy in Asmara was urging restraint to officials.

Contacted by Reuters on Saturday, Eritrea’s Foreign Minister Osman Saleh Mohammed said: “We are not involved. It’s propaganda.”

Ethiopia has denied its old foe entered the conflict, though Abiy did say last week some government troops retreated into Eritrea early in the conflict and were given assistance. 

His spokeswoman told Reuters queries should be directed to Eritrea.

Claims by all sides are near-impossible to verify because most communications to Tigray are down, and the government tightly controls access.

Abiy won a Nobel Peace Prize last year for making peace with Eritrea, but the presence of Eritrean troops on Ethiopian soil would alarm Western allies. 

Ethiopia hosts the African Union, its security services work with Western allies, and its troops serve in peacekeeping missions in South Sudan and Somalia.

Ethiopia-Eritrea ties were mostly icy under the TPLF-dominated government that ruled Ethiopia for nearly three decades in increasingly autocratic fashion before Abiy took office in 2018.

Cameron Hudson, a former CIA officer and director for African affairs at the National Security Council, said the U.S. government was divided about speaking publicly over Eritrea.

“That is, I think, due to a divide within the State Department between those seeking to maintain access to Abiy and those willing to call his own abuses,” said Hudson, now senior fellow at the Africa Center at the Atlantic Council think tank.

The TPLF claims to have killed and captured large numbers of Eritrean troops in the last month, but has provided no evidence. 

It has fired rockets into Eritrea at least four times, the U.S. State Department says.

Eritrean troops are believed to have entered Ethiopia in mid-November through three northern border towns: Zalambessa, Rama and Badme, two of the diplomats told Reuters.

The diplomatic sources and the U.S. government source did not have information on the numbers Washington believes have crossed, nor their weapons or role in the war.

Mesfin Hagos, a former Eritrean defence minister who broke with Isaias, said in an article for online publication African Arguments that the Eritreans sent in four mechanised divisions, seven infantry divisions and a commando brigade, citing sources in the defence ministry, opposition and personal contacts.

Some Ethiopian refugees in Sudan told Reuters they saw Eritrean soldiers in the north of Tigray, and that the border town of Humera had been hit last month by rocket or artillery fire from the Eritrean side of the border.

“People died, and they were scattered,” said a barber from Humera, adding that he saw about 40 bodies after one barrage and helped bury some of them.

Soldiers suspected to be Eritreans were also spotted in the regional capital Mekelle, said a resident and two diplomats in touch with inhabitants. 

Some were reported to be in Eritrean uniforms, one of the diplomats said. Others wore Ethiopian uniforms, but spoke Tigrinya with an Eritrean accent and drove trucks without license plates, the resident said.

The United Nations has expressed concern about reported violence against 96,000 Eritrean refugees in Tigray.

TPLF leader Debretsion Gebremichael told Reuters that Eritrean soldiers had raided two camps and abducted some residents but provided no evidence.

Eritrea’s Osman denied that, saying: “We are not repatriating Eritrean refugees. If Eritreans want to come back, they can.”

A U.N. security team trying to visit one of the camps on Sunday encountered uniformed Eritrean troops, two diplomatic sources told Reuters.

 The team - including two international staff - was denied access, shot at and detained, they said.

U.N. officials declined to comment. Eritrea did not immediately respond to requests for comment.

But Redwan Hussein, a spokesman for the Ethiopian government’s task force for the Tigray crisis, told reporters the U.N. team had broken through two checkpoints. 

“When they were about to break the third one they were shot at and detained,” he said.

Ethiopian officials have accused the TPLF of manufacturing fake Eritrean uniforms to bolster their claims and increase pressure on the government to accept international mediation.

The TPLF denies this.


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#RDC: La tension est vive à l'instant au Palais du Peuple entre pro Tshisekedi et pro Kabila. @StanysBujakera
Africa


"il y a déjà quelques blessés", dit un député. Il ajoute que, "si la police n'intervient pas, il risque d'avoir mort d'homme"

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7 JAN 19 :: “It’s not the people who vote that count, it’s the people who count the votes,” said Joseph Stalin.
Africa



V.S. Naipaul, in A Bend in the River wrote “It isn’t that there’s no right and wrong here. There’s no right.”


‘’Early results indicate a win for the opposition after government plans to fix the poll went awry,’’ said Africa Confidential, adding the Bishops’ Conférence Episcopale Nationale du Congo (CENCO) had organised up to 40,000 election monitors to scrutinise the conduct of the poll and conduct a parallel vote tabulation. 

CENCO did not name the winning candidate publicly, but declared that he had polled over half of the votes in the presidential election. 

Martin Fayulu is the unnamed winning opposition candidate, Africa Confidential’s church sources say. 



If President Kabila’s Man is at only 20%, then we are talking about single digits in reality. Therefore,

we are actually talking a compelling victory for Martin Fayulu, an open and shut case as it were.


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Talented teams from Kenya and United Kingdom signed a Economic Partnership Agreement today. @JaneMarriottUK
Kenyan Economy


A landmark moment for our two countries to trade more, invest more and create job opportunities - a win for Kenya and a win for the UK!

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Tea production in the 8 months to Aug 2020 SOARED by 34% y/y to 376,686 MT. @MihrThakar
Commodities



Value of tea auction sales in the 8 months to August 2020 was $760,906,185 which is 75% of the value of tea auction sales in the full year 2019, despite being for only 67% of the year 2020.

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by Aly Khan Satchu (www.rich.co.ke)
 
 
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December 2020
 
 
 
 
 
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